Adoption Cost and Timing in 2016-2017

How much does adoption cost, on average? How long does it take? We share the results of our 2016-2017 Adoption Cost & Timing Survey.

2016-2017 Adoption Cost & Timing Survey Results represented by piggy bank, calculator, and calendar

Each year, Adoptive Families polls newly formed families across the country to get actual information on the cost and length of time it took them to complete their recent adoptions. We are grateful to every one of you who took our most recent 2016-2017 Adoption Cost & Timing Survey. Of adoptions finalized in the last two years, international adoptions cost an average of $44,000; U.S. newborn adoptions cost an average of $40,000. Read on for detailed findings.

Adoption expenses vary according to the route and country program, the agency or attorney used, and secondary expenses, such as travel. With the exception of adopting a child via the U.S. public foster care system, it remains expensive to adopt in the U.S. or internationally. Total costs range from almost nothing, if you adopt from U.S. foster care, to more than $50,000 from several international countries. In the coming months, it’s likely that international adoption expenses will increase further due to new accreditation fees announced by the U.S. Department of State on February 1, 2018.

As with cost, adoption timelines vary depending on route. There is a much greater range of wait times reported in U.S. newborn and foster adoption than in international country programs. On average, a majority of families will be matched with their child, an expectant mother, or receive an international referral within one year; the vast majority will be matched within two years. It’s important to keep in mind that a certain percentage of families will always experience waits that are much shorter and much longer than the average. Before signing on with any adoption service provider (ASP), prospective parents should ask about average wait times, the number of families on the waiting list, and what, if anything, the ASP can do if your wait time continues to lengthen.

The notable exception to the one-to-two year average wait is the “Traditional” (non-waiting-child) China adoption program, in which 100% of families that adopted in 2016/17 waited longer than five years. Families that adopted a waiting child from China in that same period, on the other hand, had a much different experience, with 62% receiving their referrals in less than six months; 74% in less than one year.

If you’d like to reprint this information or cite our findings, please submit a Reprint Rights Request and Agreement Form and credit us appropriately.

Did you adopt in 2017 or 2018? Please take our current survey >

 

Country-by-Country Data

Here are the average expenses and timelines reported by families who completed adoptions in 2016 or 2017 from the U.S. and the top three sending countries in 2016 (the latest year for which the U.S. Department of State has released international adoption statistics) that are currently open—China, Ukraine, and South Korea. Along with the data, we present individual comments that indicate why a family’s total cost or timing might fall outside the averages.


U.S. Newborn,

via an Adoption Agency

Adoptions in 2014 (all U.S. newborn): 18,329*
Average cost: $43,239
Matched within 1 year: 63%
matched within 2 years: 82%

U.S. NEWBORN (AGENCY) COST

The average costs reported by families that adopted a U.S. newborn through an adoption agency in 2016/17 represented a 2.1% increase over the previous two-year reported average. The total costs for a domestic adoption via an agency are about $5,000 more than adoption via an attorney, on average.

The total costs cited below exclude expenses associated with any “false starts” with expectant mothers. Thirty-eight percent of all U.S. newborn respondents experienced one or more false starts. Of those families, 64% reported costs of less than $2,500 associated with each false start. Eight percent of all U.S. families with false starts were matched with an expectant mother who ultimately decided not to place the child after giving birth.

U.S. Newborn (Agency) – Average Cost Breakdown

Home study fee $2,433
Document preparation & authentication $595
Adoption agency application & program fees $18,826
Adoption consultant fees $2,637
Attorney fees $4,435
Advertising/networking $2,067
Birth family counseling $1,345
Birth mother expenses $3,411
Foster/interim care $282
Travel expenses $2,263
Post-placement expenses $2,076
All other expenses $2,869
AVERAGE TOTAL** $43,239
** Average represents total costs before claiming the Adoption Tax Credit.

U.S. Newborn (Agency) families on their total cost:

LOWER

“This was an identified match—our older daughter’s birth mother became pregnant and asked the agency to contact us to see if we would grow our family again. This is why these costs were lower than average (and than our previous adoption).”

“Adopting in-state saved a lot on travel expenses. The non-profit agency we worked with charges a very reasonable flat fee. In our case, the birth was covered by Medicaid, so our cost was minimal.”

“Our placement fee was based off of income. All other fees were fixed.”

BALANCED/AVERAGE

“Our agency fees were the lowest I’d ever heard of—but it was because their application fee was high. It was worth it.”

“We used a consultant agency for an out-of-state adoption, and home study and finalization expenses were not part of the agency fees. Birth mother expenses and counseling were included in agency fees.”

“Our agency did not charge for home study and education, but we had to pay own legal fees and background checks.”

HIGHER

“We had to use a separate agency for our home study and post placement visits because of our state laws. We adopted out of state and had to stay where our daughter was born for one month, plus we paid for flights to visit her birth mother during the pregnancy.”

“We simply chose an agency that costs more.”

“We waited to be matched for almost 3 years. We had to renew our home study once.”

“We adopted twins, so had to pay double to our agency for many things.”

“It was an indirect placement identified through our agency, so we paid our agency’s placement fee plus a very large placement/attorney fee to the law firm that networks with our agency.”

“I signed on to an agency that required upfront fees, but waited four years without a match. Then I signed on with multiple lower-cast agencies as well as an adoption consultant. I was eventually matched through the consultant.”

U.S. NEWBORN (AGENCY) TIMING

The average wait times reported by families that adopted a U.S. newborn through an adoption agency in 2016/17 were similar to the timing results from the 2015/16 survey. Forty percent of all U.S. newborn respondents were matched less than one month before the baby was born , and 16 percent were matched after the baby was born.

Total time to adopt as reported in this survey includes any time spent in false starts. In general, the fewer restrictions you place on the child you hope to adopt in terms of race, prenatal exposures, gender, and birth family contact, the shorter your wait will be.

U.S. Newborn (Agency) – Average Time to Be Matched

0-6 months 41%
6-12 months 22%
12-18 months 8%
18-24 months 11%
2-3 years 10%
3 years or longer 8%

 

U.S. Newborn (Agency) families on their total timeline:

SHORTER

“We were EXTREMELY open about our parameters, including race, amount of medical history available, and prenatal substance exposure. This made it fast.”

“Our daughter was born the evening after we turned in our profile book. We got the call first thing next morning, so waited less than 24 hours.”

“We were not looking to adopt, but were asked to apply for a baby who was two days old. Took us about 30 days to complete our new home study and bring her home.”

 

LONGER

“We turned down a lot of adoption opportunities because we were waiting for a healthy child.”

“We had two matches that did not end up working out. We were finally chosen after 3.5 years of waiting.”

“It took longer because we had to fight a paternity case.”

“We had to move so we stopped and restarted our wait.”

 

* Total of 18,329 domestic adoptions in 2014 includes both agency and attorney adoptions. Source: Adoption: By the Numbers, from the National Council for Adoption.

U.S. Newborn,

via an Adoption Attorney

Adoptions in 2014 (all U.S. newborn): 18,329*
Average cost:
$37,829
Matched within 1 year: 68%
Matched within 2 years: 84%

U.S. NEWBORN (ATTORNEY) COST

The average costs reported by families that adopted a U.S. newborn through an adoption attorney in 2016/17 represented an 18.6% increase from the previous two-year reported average [note: the 2015/2016 was 7.8% lower than the previous two-year average, 2014/2015], but remain lower than the average for U.S. newborn through an adoption agency.

When families adopt independently, through an attorney rather than through an adoption agency, their expenses can vary greatly. For example, expenses may be quite low if they match through word of mouth, the expectant mother’s expenses are minimal, and the legal procedure is straightforward. On the other hand, a family’s expenses can be much higher if they use online services or pay a consultant or a facilitator to work on their parent profile or find the match. The breakdown below includes agency expenses because some families began working with an agency, then switched to an attorney, or may have needed to work with an agency for the placement. The total costs cited below exclude expenses associated with any “false starts” with expectant mothers.

U.S. Newborn (Attorney) – Average Cost Breakdown

Home study fee $2,152
Document preparation & authentication $465
Adoption agency application & program fees $4,429
Adoption consultant fees $2,252
Attorney fees $13,780
Advertising/networking $1,005
Birth family counseling $873
Birth mother expenses $5,604
Foster/interim care $107
Travel expenses $1,998
Post-placement expenses $898
All other expenses $4,266
AVERAGE TOTAL** $37,829
** Average represents total costs before claiming the Adoption Tax Credit.

U.S. Newborn (Attorney) families on their total cost:

LOWER

“Ours was lower due to going with a private attorney, but was more than expected due to complications.”

“We were working with an agency when a private placement fell into our laps. We had already paid the agency for our home study, then just paid for the birth mother’s and our attorney fees.”

“Our travel costs were actually pretty low considering we were away for 13 days. We were blessed to be able to stay at Ronald McDonald House for four nights, which helped significantly with lodging and food costs.”

“We adopted from relative. She declined an attorney and counseling. We only paid home study, attorney, and court fees, plus a small amount to assist birth mother.”

“The costs were low because the adoption was through an attorney and within our home state, so we could take the baby home the day we received her.”

 

HIGHER

“We paid for the attorneys for both sides.”

“We had been working with IAC, which closed and filed bankruptcy. This cost us over $13,000!”

“Two trips across the country to meet attorney and birth mother. Two weeks in birth mother’s city, waiting out ICPC. Multiple attorneys to handle different aspects of the process.”

“It is hard to be precise about some of the costs because I paid and waited with an agency, and paid to advertise, for several months before my eventual successful adoption.”

U.S. NEWBORN (ATTORNEY) TIMING

The average wait times reported by families that adopted a U.S. newborn through an adoption attorney in 2016/17 were comparable to the timing results from the 2015/16 survey. Sixty-eight percent of families who completed this year’s survey were matched within one year—the same percent as in the previous survey—and 84% were matched within two years (83% in previous survey). A relatively large proportion of families continued to report very short or very long timelines, with 52% matched in less than six months (53% in the previous survey) and 9% with wait times over three years (8% in the previous survey).

Total timelines as reported in this survey include any time spent in false starts. A larger percentage of U.S. attorney families match very quickly, compared with U.S. agency families, as this group includes families that match through word of mouth or online before seeking the services of an attorney. They may also actively search for a match rather than waiting on an agency’s list.

U.S. Newborn (Attorney) – Average Time to Be Matched

0-6 months 52%
6-12 months 16%
12-18 months 6%
18-24 months 10%
2-3 years 7%
3 years or longer 9%

U.S. Newborn (Attorney) families on their total timeline:

SHORTER

“Our adoption was very last minute. We learned of the match two days before our son was born, then found out we were selected 30 minutes after his birth. We traveled across the country the next morning.”

“Our son was born two and a half months early. After being matched with him we flew to California ASAP and spent 47 days there. Five of those weeks were with him in the NICU visiting him daily.”

“We matched five weeks after placing our profile online, our son’s birth mother was already into her seventh month of pregnancy, then delivered 10 days before her due date. We stayed with our son in the hospital the entire time, and finalized three months after he was born.”

“We were actually matched the day our home study came in the mail. There was NO wait time. It was a big difference from our first adoption, which took over two years and had two false starts.”

LONGER

“We had to terminate parental rights on two potential birth fathers, one of whom was in prison and uncooperative.”

“The legal paper work had wrong information about me. It had to be resubmitted.”

“Our daughter was born in Texas and we lived in New England. The processing and finalization took longer due to having to meet two sets of standards.”

“We waited with an agency in our home state for two years. We eventually decided to expand our network to include an adoption attorney in Florida.”

 

* Total of 18,329 domestic adoptions in 2014 includes both agency and attorney adoptions. Source: Adoption: By the Numbers, from the National Council for Adoption.

 


U.S. Foster Adoption

Adoptions in FY 2016: 57,208*
Adopted a child younger than two years: 50%
Adopted a child younger than five years: 67%
Adopted a child younger than 10 years: 85%
Adopted more than one child: 27%

Average cost: $2,938
Qualified to receive a monthly subsidy: 88%
Average monthly subsidy: $827

Matched within 1 year: 59%
Matched within 2 years: 71%
Finalized within 1 year: 35%
Finalized within 2 years: 75%

U.S. FOSTER ADOPTION COST

The average costs reported by families that adopted through U.S. foster care in 2016/17 was $2,2938, higher than the previous two-year reported average ($2,622 in 2015/16). A significant percent of families reported $0 in expenses. However, with relatively minimal costs involved, a small portion of families who report very high costs can skew the overall average. Families that reported higher expenses may have had medical expenses, included new clothing and furniture for the child in their total cost, hired a private attorney, or traveled multiple times and/or a long distance to visit the foster child before placement.

Foster adoptive families may claim the full adoption tax credit ($13,840 for tax year 2018), regardless of expenses paid. Children may also qualify for ongoing monthly subsidies, health coverage through Medicaid, and, in some states, college tuition.

U.S. Foster Adoption – Average Cost Breakdown

Home study fee $248
All other document preparation & paperwork fees $135
Attorney fees $947
Travel expenses $256
All other expenses $1.352
AVERAGE TOTAL* $2,938
** Average represents total costs before claiming the Adoption Tax Credit.

U.S. Foster Adoption families on their total cost:

LOWER/STANDARD

“What we paid was reimbursed by the state. So, technically, it did not cost us anything.”

“We adopted through the foster system, so our costs were minimal. Attorney fees and other expenses were all reimbursed through our agency.”

“The foster care system covered the legal fees, as well as fees for the home study and fingerprinting.”

HIGHER

“We adopted from another state, so expenses were due to travel and getting a local lawyer in the state where our child was born.”

“We used a private foster care placement agency who worked very hard to help us. But we also took advantage of the state’s offer to cover the attorney fees.”

“Our son lived in a different county, several hours away. During the transition time, I would have to stay in hotels for several days. That was the biggest expense.”

U.S. FOSTER ADOPTION TIMING

In U.S. foster adoption, placement can happen quickly, and often with little warning, but 45% of families fostered one or more children before adopting. The entire foster process, from foster certification to adoption finalization, is often lengthy, but the child may be in your care for most or nearly all of that time.

On average, families that adopted through U.S. foster care reported similar wait times to the 2015/16 survey. Fifty-nine percent of families who completed this year’s survey were matched within one year vs. 60% in the previous survey. However, a larger percentage reported wait times of two years or longer (29% vs. 26%).

U.S. Foster – Average Time to Placement of Child Adopted

0-6 months 43%
6-12 months 16%
12-18 months 7%
18-24 months 5%
2 years or longer 29%

U.S. Foster – Average Time from Placement to Finalization

0-6 months 10%
6-12 months 25%
12-18 months 22%
18-24 months 18%
2 years or longer 25%

U.S. Foster Adoption families on their total timeline:

SHORTER

“We were lucky! Our home study was approved the day before they did the match for our daughter.”

“When our daughter came home she had already been freed for adoption for years. We just had to wait three months to file a letter of intent to adopt, per our state’s policy, and then another few months because there was a delay in getting her original birth certificate from another state.”

“The normal requirement in my state is the child must live with the adoptive parent(s) for six months. However, the Department of Family and Protective Services and my adoption agency felt my son and I were doing well, and we finalized after only five months.”

“It was faster than normal because the birth parents voluntarily terminated their rights.”

LONGER

“Our children were in foster care and the focus was on reunification. It was several years before the plan was changed to adoption.”

“The adoption worker didn’t move the case forward. We were ready to adopt, but she didn’t apply for consent and let everything sit for close to a year. Then, all our paperwork expired and needed to be resubmitted. I was fingerprinted three times for the same child in 25 months.”

“Our child’s birth mother appealed several times, so termination of parental rights took a long time.”

“We had an ICWA case that lengthened the time considerations.”

“We went through nine caseworkers between our agency and the state. They are overloaded and backlogged.”

 

* Source: The AFCARS Report #24, Preliminary FY 2016 Estimates as of October 2017.

China

Adoptions to the U.S. in 2016: 2,231*
Average cost: $36,441
Traditional Program, matched within 5 years: 0%
Waiting-Child Program, matched within 6 months: 62%
Waiting-Child Program, matched within 1 year: 75%
Waiting-Child Program, matched within 2 years: 90%
Adopted a child younger than two years: 25%
Adopted a child younger than five years: 72%

CHINA ADOPTION COST

Total costs excluded expenses associated with any previous unsuccessful attempts to adopt, and were similar for Traditional and Waiting Child adoptions. The average costs reported by families that adopted from China in 2016/17 were comparable to the previous two-year reported average.

The greatest variations in cost tend to fall within the program fee, depending on the adoption agency used, and the travel expenses, both major and in-country—some families choose to bring more family members on the trip, extend their stay beyond the required length, or stay in higher end hotels, or must travel during a peak season; others save on these expenses by using rewards points for travel or lodging. The in-country adoption expenses for China included the required $5,700 orphanage donation—however, CCCWA announced in December 2017 that this fee would become voluntary.

China – Average Cost Breakdown

Home study fee $2,485
Adoption agency application & program fees $10,509
All other document preparation & paperwork fees $2,494
In-country adoption expenses $4,571
Child’s passport, visa, medical exam, and other fees $733
Major travel expenses $6,645
In-country travel expenses $2,645
Post-adoption expenses $1,350
All other expenses $5,000
AVERAGE TOTAL** $36,441
** Average represents total costs before claiming the Adoption Tax Credit.

China families on their total cost:

“Individually, none of the costs stood out as really expensive or unreasonable. Services take time and cost money. Ironically, an adoption costs about the same as a birth without insurance. What does feel expensive is the additional cost of traveling and staying in country, but that’s just because travel is expensive. Both times we adopted we took time to sightsee. If you can afford an extra few thousand in expenses, it’s worth doing this.”

“Many costs were incurred multiple times, as our paperwork had to be updated over the course of many years of waiting.”

“We brought our other child and my sister, but did save a bit by using hotel points and some airline miles.”

“I applied for about 15 grants and received nine, totaling $25,000.”

“Travels expenses were high because we traveled as a family of five (six on the way home).”

“We had started with a private domestic adoption path, so many of our expenses were doubled due to having to redo home studies, etc. We also had lawyer fees from the domestic adoption effort.”

CHINA ADOPTION TIMING

Adoption from China has slowed down significantly over the past decade. Families that wish to adopt a healthy infant from China must apply through the “Traditional” program and be prepared for a wait of longer than five years for their referrals. Families that are open to an older child and/or a child with special needs (which vary from minor, correctable needs such as cleft lip to ongoing health conditions) adopt through China’s “Waiting Child” program; the wait for a referral in this program can be minimal, as many families select their child from a list of waiting children.

China Waiting-Child Program families on their total timeline:

“Our adoption took exactly the amount of time the agency told us it would.”

“We could have easily met our child in less than one year, but our dossier was delayed because we forgot to send in a fee and our agency forgot to include something in the home study. Also, we had to wait three weeks to travel due to a Chinese holiday.”

“Saw his file November 2015, dossier to China May 2016, traveled September 2016.”

“We used the returning special focus program. Because of this, the match was quick. Immigration took much longer than expected. With our 2015 adoption, it was four months. This time, nine months.”

 

 

* Source: FY 2016 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption, from the U.S. Department of State.

Ukraine

Adoptions to the U.S. in 2016: 303*
Average cost: $35,000
Referral within 1 year: 100%
Adopted a child younger than two years: 50%
Adopted a child older than 10 years: 50%

UKRAINE ADOPTION COST

Total costs excluded expenses associated with any previous unsuccessful attempts to adopt. The greatest variations in international adoption cost typically fall within the program fee, depending on the adoption agency used, document preparation and paperwork, and the travel expenses.

Ukraine – Average Cost Breakdown

Home study fee $5,000
Adoption agency application & program fees $5,000
All other document preparation & paperwork fees $4,000
In-country adoption expenses $2,000
Child’s passport, visa, medical exam, and other fees $500
Major travel expenses $7,000
In-country travel expenses $6,000
Post-adoption expenses $500
All other expenses $5,000
AVERAGE TOTAL** $35,000
** Average represents total costs before claiming the Adoption Tax Credit.

UKRAINE ADOPTION TIMING

When adopting from Ukraine, families do not receive their referral until they travel to the country. Families must either take one longer trip (of four to eight weeks) or two or three shorter trips.

 

* Source: FY 2016 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption, from the U.S. Department of State.

South Korea

Adoptions to the U.S. in 2016: 260*
Average cost: $48,329
Referral within 1 year: 85%
Referral within 2 years: 100%
Adopted a child younger than two years: 69%
Adopted a child younger than five years: 100%

SOUTH KOREA ADOPTION COST

The average expenses reported by families that adopted from South Korea in 2016/17 were comparable to the last Survey. Agency program fees have risen in the last few years, as have travel expenses since South Korea began requiring two trips instead of one.

South Korea – Average Cost Breakdown

Home study fee $2,159
Adoption agency application & program fees $26,928
All other document preparation & paperwork fees $3,098
In-country adoption expenses $300
Child’s passport, visa, medical exam, and other fees $0
Major travel expenses $13,080
In-country travel expenses $1,533
Post-adoption expenses $1,031
All other expenses $200
AVERAGE TOTAL** $48,329
** Average represents total costs before claiming the Adoption Tax Credit.

South Korea families on their total cost:

“This was our second adoption from South Korea in the last five years. The process was very similar to our first adoption. Travel cost was higher this time, due to the fact that we took our son with us so he could experience South Korean culture and visit with his foster mother again. We also took along my mother, so she could help keep our son busy during court trips and paperwork.”

“South Korea is a very ethical program and, as such, requires an intense home study process that comes with many costs. We understood the goal of such a rigorous home study was to find responsible, loving families for the children, and we were happy to pay those fees. Unlike many other countries, the children in South Korea are cared for by foster families, and our fee as adoptive parents helps provide for that care. Though, flying to and from South Korea twice is expensive!”

 

SOUTH KOREA ADOPTION TIMING

After a slowdown in adoptions from South Korea following the country’s implementation of its Special Adoption Law in 2012 and annual quotas, respondents to our last two Surveys have been reporting shorter wait times. Eighty-five percent of families that adopted in 2016/2017 reported receiving referrals within one year, vs. 83% of respondents to our 2015/16 Adoption Cost & Timing Survey, and 56% in 2014/15.

For many families with long overall timelines, the longer wait came after receiving the referral.

 

South Korea families on their total timeline:

“We had an unusually short wait and easy process.”

“The country has so many requirements, and every step takes a long time to complete.”

“I thought our second adoption would actually go a little faster, since we had already adopted from South Korea, but this really did not speed up the process at all. Our exit document took the longest to be sent to the Family Court system in South Korea. I sometimes wondered whether the political year here in the U.S. played into it….”

 

* Source: FY 2016 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption, from the U.S. Department of State.

About the Survey

Adoptive Families’ Annual Adoption Cost & Timing Surveys are conducted online, and are open to families that have finalized adoptions in the two most recent calendar years. The information about the adoptions reported on here was collected from February 2017 through February 2018 and includes information about 1,061 adoptions finalized in 2016 and 2017. It’s important to note that this survey collects self-reported data.

Giving Back

In order to gather as much data as possible, we once again posed a challenge: If more than 1,000 parents who adopted in 2016 or 2017 completed our survey, we’d select one at random and donate $200 to the adoption charity of his or her choice. We are grateful to every one of you who took the time to share your data and are thrilled to report that more than 1,000 surveys were completed!

The winners of our giveaway were Rick and Crystal Arden, of Portland, Oregon, and we were honored to make a donation to the Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption in their names. This non-profit organization holds the core belief that every child deserves a safe, loving, and permanent family and works to increase awareness of the more than 100,000 in the U.S. foster system waiting to be adopted.


Copyright © 2018 Adoptive Families magazine. If you’d like to reprint this information or cite our findings, please contact Adoptive Families about crediting us appropriately.




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Adoption Agencies

Children’s Connections, Inc.
Lubbock, TX
U.S. Newborn
TX
Abrazo Adoption Associates
San Antonio, TX
U.S. Newborn, Special Needs/Waiting Child
WACAP (World Association for Children and Parents)
Seattle, WA
U.S. Foster, International, Special Needs/Waiting Child
Building Blocks Adoption Service
Medina, OH
U.S. Newborn, Special Needs/Waiting Child
Bethany Christian Services
Grand Rapids, MI
U.S. Newborn, U.S. Foster, International, Special Needs/Waiting Child
Children’s Home Society & Lutheran Social Service of Minnesota
Saint Paul, MN
U.S. Newborn, U.S. Foster, International, Special Needs/Waiting Child
Family & Children’s Agency, Inc.
Norwalk, CT
U.S. Newborn, U.S. Foster, International, Special Needs/Waiting Child
Gladney Center for Adoption
Fort Worth, TX
U.S. Newborn, U.S. Foster, International, Special Needs/Waiting Child
Adoptions From the Heart
Wynnewood, PA
U.S. Newborn
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